Estimación de parámetros en modelos de mezclas usando algoritmos evolutivos

Natalia Romero-Rios, Juan Carlos Correa


Los modelos de mezclas son ampliamente usados en casos en los que se tienen elementos de poblaciones diversas, unidos en una super población. Hay métodos tradicionales para la estimación de los parámetros de modelos de mezclas, como lo son el bayesiano y el algoritmo de esperanza-maximización (EM). En esta investigación se propone usar los algoritmos evolutivos, como lo son los algoritmos genéticos, como método que puede servir para encontrar los parámetros de estimación de los modelos de mezclas. Para el desarrollo de este estudio se propone un algoritmo para la comparación de métodos evolutivos y tradicionales y se incluye un ejemplo de aplicación con datos reales. Se encontró que los algoritmos evolutivos son una opción competitiva para la estimación de parámetros en distribuciones de mezclas en los casos cuando las poblaciones en la mezcla siguen una distribución gamma, los pesos en las poblaciones son balanceados y el tamaño de muestra es mayor de 100 ítems. Para las mezclas de distribuciones normales y la estimación del número de poblaciones en una mezcla, el método tradicional es una mejor opción que el algoritmo genético.

Palabras clave

Estimación de mezclas; algoritmos evolutivos; algoritmos genéticos.


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