Ejercicio físico en trastornos de ansiedad: una revisión

Autores/as

  • Ángel Esteso De la Osa Universidad Miguel Hernández
  • Eva León-Zarceño Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15332/2422474X.7067

Palabras clave:

salud mental, actividad física, revisión sistemática

Resumen

La ansiedad es uno de los mayores problemas de salud mental en la sociedad actual. El ejercicio físico se ha planteado como un posible tratamiento para este trastorno. El estudio tuvo un doble objetivo: 1) determinar qué instrumentos de medida y monitorización se usaban para la evaluación de la ansiedad cuando se ponía en marcha un programa de ejercicio físico. 2) Analizar la efectividad del ejercicio físico aplicado para la reducción del trastorno de ansiedad a través de las publicaciones científicas recientes. Se realizó una revisión con método PRISMA, en: PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles y SPORTDiscus con los descriptores de Anxiety AND Exercise entre 2015-2021. Se obtuvieron 289 documentos iniciales. Al aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 22 estudios para analizar. El STAI sigue siendo el instrumento más utilizado. El ejercicio físico se ha demostrado como una pauta válida en la reducción de ansiedad y la mejora de la salud mental.

Biografía del autor/a

Ángel Esteso De la Osa, Universidad Miguel Hernández

Graduado en Ciencias de la actividad física y el deporte por la Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche. (España)

Eva León-Zarceño, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

Dra en Psicología. Máster en Psicología del Deporte. Profesora de Psicología de la actividad física y el Deporte de la Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (España).

Citas

Ali, K., Aseem, A. y Hussain, M. E. (2019). Anaerobic training and its effects on sleep quality, state, and trait anxiety in collegiate athletes. Sport Sciences for Health, 15(2), 453-461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-019-00553-1

American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Guía de consulta de los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-5®: Spanish Edition of the Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-5®. American Psychiatric Pub. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14010102

Arent, S. M., Landers, D. M., Matt, K. S. y Etnier, J. L. (2005). Dose-response and mechanistic issues in the resistance training and affect relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27(1), 92-110. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.27.1.92

Bandelow, B. y Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 17(3), 327. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2015.17.3/bbandelow

Castro-Sánchez, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Ramírez-Granizo, I. y Ubago-Jiménez, J.L. (2020). Relación entre la inteligencia emocional y los niveles de ansiedad en deportistas. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 12(1), 42-53.

Celis, J., Bustamante, M., Cabrera, D., Cabrera, M., Alarcón, W. y Monge, E. (2001). Ansiedad y estrés académico en estudiantes de Medicina humana del primer y sexto año. Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, 62, 25-30. https://doi.org/10.15381/anales.v62i1.4143

Crocq, M.A. (2017). The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 19(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2017.19.2/macrocq

De Sousa Junior, I., Nunes, R. S. M., de Luca Corrêa, H. y Vieira, E. (2021). Functional training program: the impact on depression, anxiety and sleep quality in adolescents. Sport Sciences for Health, 17(1), 233-242. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11332-020-00679-7

Delvecchio, G., Stanley, J. A., Altamura, A. C. y Brambilla, P. (2017). Metabolic alterations in generalised anxiety disorder: a review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 26(6), 587-595. https://doi.org/10.1017/s2045796017000361

Eather, N., Riley, N., Miller, A., Smith, V., Poole, A., Vincze, L., Morgan, P. J. y Lubans, D. R. (2019). Efficacy and feasibility of HIIT training for university students: The Uni-HIIT RCT. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 22(5), 596–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.016

Emhan, A., Selek, S., Bayazıt, H., Karababa, İ. F., Katı, M. y Aksoy, N. (2015). Evaluation of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry research, 230(3), 806-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.11.001

Erdoğan Yüce, G. y Muz, G. (2020). Effect of yoga-based physical activity on perceived stress, anxiety, and quality of life in young adults. Perspectives in psychiatric care, 56(3), 697–704. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12484

Faro, J., Wright, J. A., Hayman, L. L., Hastie, M., Gona, P. N. y Whiteley, J. A. (2019). Functional resistance training and affective response in female college-age students. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51(6), 1186-1194. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001895

Fernández-Blázquez, M. A., Ávila-Villanueva, M., López-Pina, J. A., Zea-Sevilla, M. A. y Frades-Payo, B. (2015). Psychometric properties of a new short version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for the assessment of anxiety in the elderly. Neurología (English Edition), 30(6), 352-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2015.05.002

Gallotta, M. C., Emerenziani, G. P., Monteiro, M. D., Iasevoli, L., Iazzoni, S., Baldari, C. y Guidetti, L. (2015). Psychophysical benefits of rock-climbing activity. Perceptual and motor skills, 121(3), 675-689. https://doi.org/10.2466/30.PMS.121c26x9

Gordon, B. R., McDowell, C. P., Lyons, M. y Herring, M. P. (2020). Resistance exercise training for anxiety and worry symptoms among young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Scientific reports, 10(1), 17548. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74608-6

Gordon, B. R., McDowell, C. P., Lyons, M. y Herring, M. P. (2021). Resistance exercise training among young adults with analogue generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of affective disorders, 281, 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.020

Greene, D. R. y Petruzzello, S. J. (2015). More isn’t necessarily better: Examining the intensity–affect–enjoyment relationship in the context of resistance exercise. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(2), 75. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000030

Gribble, R., Liese, B. H. y Wickremsinhe, M. N. (2021). An analysis of funding patterns in development assistance for mental health: who, when, what, and where. Global mental health (Cambridge, England), 8, e1. https://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2020.30

Herring, M. P., Hallgren, M. y Campbell, M. J. (2017). Acute exercise effects on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young women with probable generalized anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 33, 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.07.009

Herring, M. P., Johnson, K. E. y O’Connor, P. J. (2016). Exercise training and health-related quality of life in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychology of sport and exercise, 27, 138-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.08.011

Herring, M. P., Monroe, D. C., Gordon, B. R., Hallgren, M. y Campbell, M. J. (2019). Acute exercise effects among young adults with analogue generalized anxiety disorder. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 51(5), 962. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001860

Hill, M. D., Gibson, A. M., Wagerman, S. A., Flores, E. D. y Kelly, L. A. (2019). The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on state anxiety and cognitive function. Science & Sports, 34(4), 216-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2018.09.004

Lang, P. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behaviour: Problems in treating a construct. En Shilen J.M. (Ed): Research in pschotherapy vol.III (pp. 90-102). American Psichological Association.

LeBouthillier, D. M. y Asmundson, G. J. (2015). A single bout of aerobic exercise reduces anxiety sensitivity but not intolerance of uncertainty or distress tolerance: A randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 44(4), 252-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2015.1028094

LeBouthillier, D. M. y Asmundson, G. (2017). The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of anxiety disorders, 52, 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.09.005

Legrand, F. D., Ory, E. y Herring, M. P. (2020). Evaluation of a brief interval exercise training (IET) intervention for first-time prisoners with elevated anxiety symptoms. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 33(5), 581-589. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1768244

León-Zarceño, E., Moreno-Tenas, A., Boix-Vilella, S., Garcia-Naveira, A. y Serrano, M.-A. (2021). Habits and psychological factors associated with changes in physical activity due to COVID-19 confinement. Frontiers in Psychololy. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.620745/full

Lucibello, K. M., Parker, J. y Heisz, J. J. (2019). Examining a training effect on the state anxiety response to an acute bout of exercise in low and high anxious individuals. Journal of affective disorders, 247, 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.063

Martínez-Domínguez, S. J., Lajusticia, H., Chedraui, P., Pérez-López, F. R. y Health Outcomes and Systematic Analyses (HOUSSAY) Project. (2018). The effect of programmed exercise over anxiety symptoms in midlife and older women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Climacteric, 21(2), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/13697137.2017.1415321

Mavrovouniotis, A., Argiriadou, E., Mavrovouniotis, F., Mavrovounioti, C. y Deligiannis, A. (2016). Greek dances, aerobic dance and women's psychological health state. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16, 720. 10.7752/jpes.2016.s1117

McIntyre, K. M., Puterman, E., Scodes, J. M., Choo, T. H., Choi, C. J., Pavlicova, M. y Sloan, R. P. (2020). The effects of aerobic training on subclinical negative affect: A randomized controlled trial. Health psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 39(4), 255-264. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000836

Memmedova, K. (2015). Impact of Pilates on anxiety attention, motivation, cognitive function and achievement of students: structural modeling. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 544-548. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042815022697

Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social. (2019). Encuesta Nacional de Salud ENSE, 2017 España, Serie informes monográficos #1 - SALUD MENTAL. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social.

Mochcovitch, M. D., Deslandes, A. C., Freire, R. C., Garcia, R. F. y Nardi, A. E. (2016). The effects of regular physical activity on anxiety symptoms in healthy older adults: a systematic review. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 38(3), 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2015-1893

Pedersen, M. T., Vorup, J., Nistrup, A., Wikman, J. M., Alstrøm, J. M., Melcher, P. S., Pfister, G. U. y Bangsbo, J. (2017). Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 27(8), 852-864. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12823

Rufo-Tavares, W., Barbosa Lira, C. A., Andrade, M. S., Zimerer, C., Leopoldo, A. S., Sarro, K. J., Gentil, P., Nikolaidis, P. T., Rosemann, T., Knechtle, B. y Vancini, R. L. (2020). Effects of kettlebell training and detraining on mood status and sleep and life quality of healthy women. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies, 24(4), 344-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.07.006

Sierra, J. C., Ortega, V. y Zubeidat, I. (2003). Ansiedad, angustia y estrés: tres conceptos a diferenciar. Revista mal-estar e subjetividade, 3(1), 10-59. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=27130102

Stubbs, B., Koyanagi, A., Hallgren, M., Firth, J., Richards, J., Schuch, F., Rosenbaum, S., Mugisha, J., Veronese, N., Lahti, J. y Vancampfort, D. (2017). Physical activity and anxiety: a perspective from the World Health Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders, 208, 545-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.10.028

Torales, J., Barrios, I., Almirón, M. y De la Cueva, R. (2017). Physiotherapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 10(3): 298-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/17542863.2017.1303075

Valdivia-Moral, P., Zafra, E., Zurita, F., Castro-Sánchez, M., Muros, J.J. y Cofre-Bolados, C. (2016). Niveles de Ansiedad en Judocas Chilenos. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 8(2), 129-138.

Wang, D., Wang, Y., Li, R. y Zhou, C. (2014). Impact of physical exercise on substance use disorders: a meta analysis. Plos One, 9(10): e110728. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110728

Wu, T., Jia , X., Shi, H,. Niu, J., Yin, X., Xie, J. y Wang, X. (2021). Prevalence of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15(281), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.117

Zhang, Y., Zhang, B., Gan, L., Ke, L., Fu, Y., Di, Q. y Ma, X. (2021). Effects of Online Bodyweight High-Intensity Interval Training Intervention and Health Education on the Mental Health and Cognition of Sedentary Young Females. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010302

Descargas

Publicado

2022-01-01

Cómo citar

Esteso De la Osa, Ángel, & León-Zarceño, E. (2022). Ejercicio físico en trastornos de ansiedad: una revisión. Cuerpo, Cultura Y Movimiento, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.15332/2422474X.7067