##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Ayman Talal Yousef Luca Foschi Diego Checa Hidalgo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3269-0240

Resumen

Este artículo analiza la praxis de la resistencia no-violenta en Palestina a través de la lente de Gramsci. El artículo inicia con una investigación histórica sobre los principales fenómenos de la tradición de resistencia palestina, cuyas expresiones no-violentas se destacan para demostrar su continuidad y su efectividad, centrándose en tres levantamientos del movimiento nacional donde se desplegó esta forma de resistencia: la Revuelta Árabe, la Primera Intifada y la Intifada de Al Aqsa. Más adelante se presenta el marco de la tradición teórica de la lucha no-violenta para interpretar las acciones y estrategias de resistencia popular palestina. Finalmente, estas formas de resistencia se integran e incluyen en el paradigma hegemónico alternativo de Gramsci, con el fin de avivar la discusión en torno a una estrategia orgánica no-violenta de resistencia política.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Palabras Clave

no-violencia, resistencia civil, resistencia popular, Palestina, Gramsci

Referencias
Abdel Jawad, S. (1990). Regarding the tasks of Next Stage: Methods of Mass Support to Intifada. Jerusalem: Center for Development Studies. Original in Arabic, صالح ، عبد الجواد (1990) حول مهمات المرحلة القادمة أساليب الدعم الجماهيري للانتفاضة ، لندن : مركز القدس للدراسات الإنمائية ، ص، 4-12.
Abed, G. T. (1989). The Political Economy of Resistance in the Occupied Territories. Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1), 55-63.
Abusalim, J. (2018). The Great March of Return: An organizer’s perspective. Journal of Palestine Studies, 47(4), 90-100.
Ackerman, P. & Kruegler, C. (1994). Strategic non-Violent conflict. The Dynamics of People’s Power in the Twentieth Century. Westport: Praeger.
Aliqtisadi, S. (1989). Methods of Popular Resistance in the First Intifada, Samed, 11(75), 191-200. Original article in Arabic, صامد الاقتصادي ، (1989) أساليب المقاومة الشعبية في الانتفاضة ، السنة 11، العدد 75 ، ص. 191-200.
Alnasseri, S. (2016). Arab Revolution and Beyond. The Middle East and Reverberations in the Americas. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Andoni, G. (2001). A Comparative Study of Intifada 1987 and Intifada 2000. In R. Carey (Ed.), The New Intifada: Resisting the Israeli Apartheid. London: Verso.
B’tselem. (2011). 29 June 2011: Separation Barrier moved, but some 1,300 dunams of Bil’in land remain on other side. Retrieved from https://www.btselem.org/topic-page/29611-1300
Barghouti, M. (2017). Why We Are on Hunger Strike in Israel’s Prisons, New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/16/opinion/palestinian-hunger-strike-prisoners-call-for-justice.html
Bartkowski, M. (Ed.) (2013). Recovering nonviolent history. Civil resistance in liberation struggles. London-Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher.
Barreñada Bajo, I. (2006). Identidad nacional y ciudadanía en el conflicto israelopalestino: los palestinos con ciudadanía israelí, parte del conflicto y excluidos del proceso de paz. Tesis doctoral, Universidad Complutense.
Basallote Marín, A., Checa Hidalgo, D., López Arias, L. and Ramos Tolosa, J. (2017). Existir es resistir. Pasado y presente de Palestina-Israel. Granada: Comares.
Beaumont, P. (2016). Israel passes law to force NGOs to reveal foreign funding. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/12/israel-passes-law-to-force-ngos-to-reveal-foreign-funding
Beaumont, P. (2017). Hamas and Fatah sign deal over control of Gaza Strip. The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/12/hamas-claims-deal-agreed-fatah-control-gaza-strip
Berger, Y. (2017). How Many Settlers Really Live in the West Bank? Haaretz Investigation Reveals. Haaretz. Retrieved from https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.794730
Berrigan, F. (2009). Made in the U.S.A.: American Military Aid to Israel. Journal of Palestine Studies, 38(3), 6-21.
Botta, A. & G. Viaggi (2012). A Post-Keynesian Model of the Palestinian Economy: The Economics of an Investment-Constrained Economy. Review of Political Economy, 24(2), 203-26.
Burgis-Kashtala, M. L. (2014). Over-stating Palestine’s UN Membership Bid? An Ethnographic Study on the Narratives of Statehood. The European Journal of International Law, 25(3), 677-701.
Carter, A. (2012). People power and political change. Key issues and concepts. Milton Park: Routledge.
Checa Hidalgo, D. (2016). Resistiendo la ocupación de los Territorios Palestinos. Oportunidades y desafíos de la lucha no-violenta. Miscelánea de estudios árabes y hebraicos. Sección Arabe-Islám, 65, 3-20.
Checa Hidalgo, D. (2017). El desarrollo de identidades palestinas diferenciadas bajo el poder colonial. In Ch. Olivieri and A. Ortega Santos (Eds.). Decolonizando Identidades. Pertenencia y Rechazo de/desde el Sur Global (pp. 131-144). Granada: Instituto de Migraciones.
Chomsky, N. (1999). Fateful Triangle. The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians. London: Pluto Press.
Clark, N. L. & Worger, W. H. (2011). South Africa. The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. London and New York: Routledge.
Darweish, M. & Rigby, A. (2015). Popular protest in Palestine. The uncertain future of unarmed resistance. London: Pluto Press.
Dudouet, V. (2009). Cross Bordet Non-Violent Advocacy During the Second Intifada: The International Solidarity Movement. In H. Clark (Ed.), Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity. London: Pluto Press.
Erakat, S. (1990). Intifada and the Surrounding Variables. Jerusalem: Dar Alawdeh for Studies and Publications. Original in Arabic, عريقات ، صائب (1990) الانتفاضة والمتغيرات ، القدس : دار العودة للدراسات والنشر ، ص. 30-35.
Foschi, L. (2018). Failed Hegemonies and Reactive Intrastates. The Cases of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in Iraq, Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Palestine. PhD thesis, University of Cagliari.
Frosini, F. & Liguori, G. (eds.) (2004). Le parole di Gramsci. Per un lessico dei Quaderni del Carcere. Roma: Carocci.
Galtung, J. (1989). Non-Violence and Israel/Palestine. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Gelvin, J. L. (2011). The Modern Middle East. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gijón Mendigutia, M. (2015). Historia del movimiento de mujeres en Palestina, Tafalla: Txalaparta.
Gramsci, A. (2007) [1975]. Quaderni del Carcere (Edizione critica dell’Istituto Gramsci, Valentino Gerratana (Ed.)). Torino: Einaudi.
Gran, P. (2009). The Rise of the Rich - A New View of Modern World History. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Gribetz, J. (2012). The Question of Palestine before the international community, 1924: A Methodological inquiry into the Charge of “Bias”. Israel Studies, 17(1), 50-77.
Gupta, D. & Mundra, K. (2005). Suicide Bombing as a strategic weapon: an empirical investigation of Hamas and Islamic Jihad. Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(4), 573-98.
Hanieh, A. (2010). The Internationalisation of Gulf Capital and Palestinian Class Formation. Capital & Class, 35(1), 81-106.
Hussein, Ch. (2015). The Re-Emergence of the Single State Solution in Palestine/Israel Countering an Illusion. London: Reutledge.
Ibhais, H. & Ayed, K. (2013). The Separation Wall in the West Bank. Beirut: Al- Zaytounah Center for Studies and Consultations.
Kayyali, A. W. (2014). Palestina, una historia moderna. Colonización sionista, imperialismo británico y resistencia nativa hasta 1939. Madrid: Bósforo Libros.
Khalidi, R. (1997). Palestinian identity: The construction of modern national consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kimmerling, B. & Migdal, J. S. (2003). The Palestinian People. A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kramer, G. (2008). A History of Palestine from the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Leech, P. (2016). The State of Palestine: A critical analysis. Milton Park 4: Routledge.
López Martínez, M. (2017). ¿Noviolencia o barbarie? El arte de no dejarse deshumanizar. Madrid: Dykinson.
Madeyah, S. (2002). Non-Violent Resistance: Matching Means with Goals. Roaya, 16. Original article in Arabic, مضية ، سعيد (2002)، نضال اللاعنف انسجام الوسيلة مع الهدف ، رؤية ، السنة الثانية ، العدد 16 ، شباط 2002، ص. pp. 181-191.
MacMahon, S. F. (2014). The Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions campaign: contradictions and challenges. Race and Class, 55(4), 65-81.
Mansour, A. (1988). The West Bank Economy: 1948-1984. In G. T. Abed, The Palestinian Economy: studies in development under prolonged occupation. London: Routledge.
Masalha, N. (2018). Palestine: A Four Thousand Year History. London: Zed Books.
McAdam, D. (1999). Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Mishal, S. (1981). Nationalism through Localism: Some Observations on the West Bank Political Elite. Middle Eastern Studies, 17(4), 477-491.
Morton, A. D. (2007). Unravelling Gramsci. Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Economy. London: Pluto Press.
Nazzal, H. (2010). Peaceful Resistance in International Conflict: Palestine as Case Study. Unpublished Master Thesis, Birzeit University.
Norman, J. M. (2010). The Second Palestinian Intifada. Civil Resistance. London and New York: Routledge.
Qumsiyeh, M. (2011). Popular Resistance in Palestine: History of Hope and Empowerment. Ramallah: Muwaitin, The Palestinian Center for Democracy.
Pappe, I. (2014). Storia della Palestina Moderna. Una Terra due popoli. Torino: Einaudi.
Pfeffer, A. (2010). Mass Demonstration in Bil'in Marks Five Years of Protests Against West Bank Separation Fence. Haaretz. Retrieved from https://www.haaretz.com/1.5032984
Porath, Y. (1995). The Palestinian Arab National Movement 1918-1929. London: Frank Cass.
Qtait J. et al. (2006). Arab and Boycotting of Israel. Amman: Center for Middle East Studies. Original in Arabic, جهادقطيط،العربومقاطعةإسرائيل،عمان: مركزدراساتالشرقالأوسط،٢٠٠٤،ص, 30-40.
Randle, M. (1994). Civil Resistance. London: Fontana.
Reuters. (2017). Benjamin Netanyahu threatens to expel al-Jazeera from Israel. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/27/benjamin-netanyahu-threatens-to-expel-al-jazeera-from-israel
Rigby, A. (1991). Living the intifada. London: Zed Books.
Roberts, A. and Ash, T. G. (eds.) (2009). Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of non-Violence Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Robinson, G. E. (1993). The Role of the Professional Middle Class in the Mobilization of Palestine Society: The Medical and Agricultural Committees. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 25(2), 301-26.
Rodman, K. A. (1994). Public and Private Sanctions against South Africa. Political Science Quarterly, 109(2), 313-34.
Roy, S. (1987). The Gaza Strip, A Case of Economic De-Development. Journal of Palestine Studies, 17(1), 56-88.
RT (2017). University lecturer denied entry to Israel, banned for 10 years. Retrieved from https://www.rt.com/uk/363194-israel-bans-soas-lecturer/
Said, E. (1992). The Question of Palestine. New York: Vintage Books.
Sayigh, Y. (1997). Armed struggle and the Search for State. The Palestinian National Movement 1949-1993. Oxford: Institute for Palestine Studies, Clarendon Press.
Schock, K. (2013). The practice and study of civil resistance. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 277-290.
Semelin, J. (1993). Unarmed Resistance against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe 1939-1943. Westport: Praeger Publisher.
Sharp, G. (1973). The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Boston: Porter Sargent.
Sharp, G. (1980). Social Power and Political Freedom. Boston: Porter Sargent.
Spayd, L. (2017). An Op-Ed Author Omits His Crimes, and The Times Does Too. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/18/public-editor/an-op-ed-author-omits-his-crimes-and-the-times-does-too.html
Stein, L. R. & Swedenburg. T. (2004). Popular Culture, Relational History, and the Question of Power in Palestine and Israel. Journal of Palestine Studies, 33(4), 5-20.
Tilley, V. (2005). The one-state solution. A Breakthrough for Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Deadlock. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Turner, M. (2001). Creating ‘Partners for Peace’: The Palestinian Authority and the International Statebuilding Agenda. Journal of Intervention and State building, 5(1), 1-21.
Vinthagen, S. (2015). A theory of nonviolent action. How civil resistance works. London: Zed Books.
Rings, W. (1982). Life with the enemy. Collaboration and resistance in Hitler’s Europe 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday and Company.
Yousef, A. (1974). Haj Amin Al Husseini between Political Realism and Traditional Dogmatism. Najah University Journal, 2(2), 541-566.
Cómo citar
Yousef, A. T., Foschi, L., & Checa Hidalgo, D. (2020). La resistencia palestina: praxis no violenta desde un paradigma gramsciano. Campos En Ciencias Sociales, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.15332/25006681/6013
Sección
Artículos